Although the countries of North Africa are not traditionally seen as great sources of displacement, they have seen their share conflict. It is estimated, for example, that nearly one million Algerians were displaced during that country's internal conflict in the 90s. Egypt continues to host many refugees fleeing Sudan and Somalia's civil wars.

The region is also increasingly becoming a transit zone for immigrants and refugees from sub-Saharan Africa seeking entrance to Europe, and as Europe tightens its borders, refugees are increasingly finding themselves being forced to seek refuge.

Focus on Sudan

Armed conflict continues to rage in Sudan, both in the Darfur region of western Sudan and in the regions of Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile. In more than ten years of conflict, hundreds of thousands have died as a result of the conflict and millions have been forced to flee their homes.

The International Refugee Rights Initiative has sought to address this crisis by bringing together the Sudan Consortium, a coalition of more than 50 Africa-based and Africa-focused NGOs dedicated to working together to promote a just, peaceful and sustainable end to the ongoing humanitarian and human rights crisis in Sudan.

The Consortium was founded in September 2004 as concerned NGOs gathered on the fringes of the third extraordinary session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights in Pretoria, South Africa. The Consortium reflects the perspective of African civil society and provides a forum for unified action, particularly through sustained engagement with the institutions of the African Union. In addition to providing support to Sudanese and Darfurian civil society, to date the Darfur Consortium has engaged in activities aimed at raising awareness about the crisis, monitoring the investigation of the International Criminal Court and advocacy on accountability for serious human rights violations, protection of civilians and the peace process.

Recent publications of the International Refugee Rights Initiative related to the North and the Horn of Africa:

Sudan: Prominent human rights defender detained incommunicado, 20 December 2016

Open Letter concerning the six months detention of and spurious criminal proceedings against staff members of the Centre for Training and Human Development (TRACKs) in Sudan, 12 December 2016.

TRACKs trial continues as detainees near their 6th month of detention, joint NGO statement, 17 November 2016

Olivia Bueno, "Sudan: The Limits of a Lonely Court," published in Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: The Deterrent Effect of the International Criminal Court, published by the International Nuremburg Principles Academy, November 2016.

Call for Evidence: All-Party Parliamentary Group inquiry into UK-Sudan relations 15 September 2016

Letter from 33 NGOs and individuals regarding the human rights situation in Sudan in advance of the 33rd session of the UN Human Rights Council 7 September 2016

Sudan's Blue Nile Five Years On: A Crisis Normalised, Press Release, 6 September 2016

A Crisis Normalised: Civilian perspectives on the conflict in Sudan's Blue Nile State, Full report, 6 September 2016

Letter to the German government on the release of Darfuri activists, 9 August 2016.

Letter to John Kerry on the appointment of another senior official on Sudan and South Sudan, 30 July 2016

IRRI and EHAHRDP Oral Statement on the Adoption of the UPR report on Somalia, 24 June 2016

'No one on the earth cares if we survive except God and sometimes UNAMID': The challenges of peacekeeping in Darfur, 23 June 2016.

Sudan: Civil Society Statement on Push Factors in Sudan and the Khartoum Process, 20 June 2016.

Sudan: Joint Civil Society Statement regarding Sexual Violence in Conflict, 19 June 2016.

Letter Regarding Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC) of the Agreement for Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan. 17 June 2016

Open Letter to Member States of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region Regarding the Situation in Sudan, 14 June 2016

Letter on the 5th Year Anniversary of Conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, 4 June 2016

Open Letter Concerning Excessive Use of Force by Sudanese Authorities, 3 May 2016

Letter: UN Independent Expert on the situation of Human Rights in Sudan, 26 April 2016.

Sudan blocks civil society participation in UN-led human rights review, 31 March 2016.

Submission to the Universal Periodic Review of Sudan 2016, September 2015.

"We just want a rest from war" Civilian perspectives on the conflict in Sudan's Southern Kordofan State, 21 April 2015.

“It is a joke”. Ongoing conflict and controversies over "return" in Sudan's Darfur
, July 17, 2014 (In Arabic).

The International community must act to end Sudan’s “unprecedented and intense” bombing of civilians (press release), June 2014
Read the full letter to the UN Security Council. (In French).
Read the full letter to the AU. (In Arabic).
Read the full letter to the LAS. (In Arabic).

African Commission: Investigate Sudan Killings, November 2013

Fact-finding Mission Needed Into Deaths, Detention of Protesters, November 2013

As the African Union celebrates 10 years, new research warns of the “disappearance of Sudan.” May 21, 2013

The disappearance of Sudan? Life in Khartoum for citizens without rights, May 2013. (In Arabic).

The long road to Juba for displaced South Sudanese, Matthew Corrigan, July 31, 2012.

Thousands ‘choose peace’ on anniversary of South Sudanese independence, July 2012

150 African and Arab civil society organisations implore US and China to help solve conflicts in Sudan and South Sudan, May 2012

NGO Panel Highlights Major Challenges to Human Rights in Sudan, May 2012

The Way Forward: Developing a Global Community to End Genocide and Mass Violence, May 2012

Darfurians in South Sudan: negotiating belonging in two Sudans, May 2012.