In the CRAI initiative, IRRI partners with the Open Society Justice Initiative (OSJI) and the Pan-African Movement in a high level advocacy campaign challenging the conception and practice of citizenship on the continent. Through research, awareness raising and political advocacy, CRAI is designed to persuade leaders on the continent to recognize that unequal access to and arbitrary deprivation of citizenship is a major human rights problem and one of the principle causes of displacement and unrest. In the wake of xenophobic violence in South Africa in 2008, for example, CRAI led an assessment mission resulting in the publication of the report, Tolerating Intolerance. This and other resources are available on the CRAI website. With our partners series of advocacy activities are being conducted to build support for the creation of new standards – including a new protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights.