Armed conflict has seriously affected the people of Sudan for decades and a protracted civil war with the south resulted in the secession of South Sudan in 2011.

Violent conflicts, characterised by human rights abuses and abuses of international humanitarian law have continued in Darfur and in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states (the “Two Areas”) leading to multiple deaths, serious injuries and massive displacements of civilians. Despite a succession of ceasefires since mid-2016, there are ongoing human rights abuses, including looting and abductions in the Nuba Mountains of Southern Kordofan. In Darfur, the joint UN-AU mission, UNAMID, has scaled down its presence because of a disputed claim of a reduction in violence.

Sudan’s current President, Omar Bashir has an outstanding International Criminal Court arrest warrant for crimes against humanity, war crimes, and genocide in Darfur between. Freedom of religion, peaceful assembly, association and expression are severely curtailed and civil society space is limited. Humanitarian access to conflict areas is minimal or prohibited.

Sudan is currently regarded as both a generator of refugees and a transit hub for human trafficking, smuggling and migration to Europe.