South Sudan is the world’s newest state, having gained independence in 2011 following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2005) with the government of Sudan. Since then, the country has struggled to build its institutions, and in 2013 a power struggle plunged the country into civil war, leading to the deaths of thousands of civilians and one of the largest refugee and humanitarian crises in Africa’s history. Neighbouring countries host more than two million refugees with millions more internally displaced. A peace agreement mediated by the regional Inter-governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) broke down in 2016, leading to renewed violence.