North and Horn of Africa
Conflict and displacement have been serious problems in the Horn of Africa for decades. Violence in South Sudan and Somalia and the political climate in Eritrea have forced many to flee their homes and the ongoing conflict in Darfur and the Two Areas (Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile) of Sudan have caused the displacement of vast numbers of citizens.
Although the countries of North Africa are not traditionally seen as great sources of displacement, they have more recently, seen their share of conflict with the Arab Spring in 2011 and the ongoing conflict in Libya forcing many to leave their homes, whilst Egypt continues to host many refugees fleeing Sudan and Somalia’s civil wars.
The region has always been an area of transit for refugees and other migrants, the majority of whom remain in the region. For those that move out of the region, most travel through Yemen to Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states, or south to South African. However, recently there has been an increase in immigrants and refugees from sub-Saharan Africa seeking to travel to Europe. As all countries in the region and Europe tighten their borders, refugees are increasingly finding themselves being forced to remain in North Africa, often in precarious conditions.
In the HoA, the vast majority of those who are on the move have remained in the region. And for those who do decide to move out of the region, the route to Europe is only one of several routes that can be used. The majority of those who leave the Horn go east, through Yemen to Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states, while others travel south, through Kenya, to South Africa